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Recent publications

  • Myller KAH, ORCID:, Honkanen JTJ, ORCID:, Jurvelin JS, Saarakkala S, Toyras J, Vaananen SP and ORCID: Method for Segmentation of Knee Articular Cartilages Based on Contrast-Enhanced CT Images. Ann Biomed Eng. 2018 Nov;46(11):1756-1767. doi: 10.1007/s10439-018-2081-z. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

  • Ojanen X, Tanska P, Malo MKH, Isaksson H, Vaananen SP, Koistinen AP, Grassi L, Magnusson SP, Ribel-Madsen SM, Korhonen RK, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Tissue viscoelasticity is related to tissue composition but may not fully predict the apparent-level viscoelasticity in human trabecular bone - An experimental and finite element study. J Biomech. 2017 Dec 8;65:96-105. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.10.002. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

  • Saukko AEA, ORCID: 0000-0001-8678-4675, Honkanen JTJ, Xu W, Vaananen SP, ORCID: 0000-0001-9803-7407, Jurvelin JS, Lehto VP, ORCID: 0000-0001-8153-1070, Toyras J and ORCID: 0000-0002-8035-1606. Dual Contrast CT Method Enables Diagnostics of Cartilage Injuries and Degeneration Using a Single CT Image. Ann Biomed Eng. 2017 Dec;45(12):2857-2866. doi: 10.1007/s10439-017-1916-3. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

  • Tong X, ORCID:, Malo MKH, Burton IS, Jurvelin JS, Isaksson H and Kroger H. Histomorphometric and osteocytic characteristics of cortical bone in male subtrochanteric femoral shaft. J Anat. 2017 Nov;231(5):708-717. doi: 10.1111/joa.12670. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

  • Eneh CT, Afara IO, Malo MK, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Porosity predicted from ultrasound backscatter using multivariate analysis can improve accuracy of cortical bone thickness assessment. J Acoust Soc Am. 2017 Jan;141(1):575. doi: 10.1121/1.4973572.

  • Grassi L, ORCID: 0000-0001-7824-9947, Vaananen SP, Ristinmaa M, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. Prediction of femoral strength using 3D finite element models reconstructed from DXA images: validation against experiments. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2017 Jun;16(3):989-1000. doi: 10.1007/s10237-016-0866-2. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

  • Ojanen X, Toyras J, Inkinen SI, Malo MK, Isaksson H and Jurvelin JS. Differences in acoustic impedance of fresh and embedded human trabecular bone samples-Scanning acoustic microscopy and numerical evaluation. J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 Sep;140(3):1931. doi: 10.1121/1.4962347.

  • Myller KA, ORCID: 0000-0001-8820-1322, Turunen MJ, Honkanen JT, Vaananen SP, ORCID: 0000-0001-9803-7407, Iivarinen JT, Salo J, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. In Vivo Contrast-Enhanced Cone Beam CT Provides Quantitative Information on Articular Cartilage and Subchondral Bone. Ann Biomed Eng. 2017 Mar;45(3):811-818. doi: 10.1007/s10439-016-1730-3. Epub 2016 Sep 19.

  • Inkinen SI, Liukkonen J, Malo MK, Viren T, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Finite difference time domain model of ultrasound propagation in agarose scaffold containing collagen or chondrocytes. J Acoust Soc Am. 2016 Jul;140(1):1. doi: 10.1121/1.4953021.

  • Turunen MJ, Kaspersen JD, Olsson U, Guizar-Sicairos M, Bech M, Schaff F, Tagil M, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. Bone mineral crystal size and organization vary across mature rat bone cortex. J Struct Biol. 2016 Sep;195(3):337-344. doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2016.07.005. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

  • Puhakka J, Afara IO, Paatela T, Sormaala MJ, Timonen MA, Viren T, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J and Kiviranta I. In Vivo Evaluation of the Potential of High-Frequency Ultrasound for Arthroscopic Examination of the Shoulder Joint. Cartilage. 2016 Jul;7(3):248-55. doi: 10.1177/1947603515617280. Epub 2015 Nov 26.

  • Linder H, Malo MK, Liukkonen J, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Phased-array ultrasound technology enhances accuracy of dual frequency ultrasound measurements - towards improved ultrasound bone diagnostics. J Med Eng Technol. 2016 Aug;40(6):293-7. doi: 10.1080/03091902.2016.1185472. Epub 2016 May 17.

  • Eneh CT, Malo MK, Karjalainen JP, Liukkonen J, Toyras J and Jurvelin JS. Effect of porosity, tissue density, and mechanical properties on radial sound speed in human cortical bone. Med Phys. 2016 May;43(5):2030. doi: 10.1118/1.4942808.

  • Halonen KS, Mononen ME, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J, Klodowski A, Kulmala JP and Korhonen RK. Importance of Patella, Quadriceps Forces, and Depthwise Cartilage Structure on Knee Joint Motion and Cartilage Response During Gait. J Biomech Eng. 2016 Jul 1;138(7). pii: 2520868. doi: 10.1115/1.4033516.

  • Honkanen JTJ, Turunen MJ, Freedman JD, Saarakkala S, Grinstaff MW, Ylarinne JH, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Cationic Contrast Agent Diffusion Differs Between Cartilage and Meniscus. Ann Biomed Eng. 2016 Oct;44(10):2913-2921. doi: 10.1007/s10439-016-1629-z. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

  • Mannicke N, Schone M, Liukkonen J, Fachet D, Inkinen S, Malo MK, Oelze ML, Toyras J, Jurvelin JS and Raum K. Species-Independent Modeling of High-Frequency Ultrasound Backscatter in Hyaline Cartilage. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2016 Jun;42(6):1375-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2016.01.018. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

  • Venalainen MS, Mononen ME, Vaananen SP, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J, Viren T and Korhonen RK. Effect of bone inhomogeneity on tibiofemoral contact mechanics during physiological loading. J Biomech. 2016 May 3;49(7):1111-1120. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.02.033. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

  • Grassi L, Vaananen SP, Ristinmaa M, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. How accurately can subject-specific finite element models predict strains and strength of human femora? Investigation using full-field measurements. J Biomech. 2016 Mar 21;49(5):802-806. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.02.032. Epub 2016 Feb 18.

  • Eneh CT, Liukkonen J, Malo MK, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Inter-individual changes in cortical bone three-dimensional microstructure and elastic coefficient have opposite effects on radial sound speed. J Acoust Soc Am. 2015 Dec;138(6):3491-9. doi: 10.1121/1.4934276.

  • Honkanen JT, ORCID: 0000-0002-9150-9253, Turunen MJ, Tiitu V, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Transport of Iodine Is Different in Cartilage and Meniscus. Ann Biomed Eng. 2016 Jul;44(7):2114-22. doi: 10.1007/s10439-015-1513-2. Epub 2015 Dec 9.

  • Karjalainen JP, Riekkinen O, Toyras J, Jurvelin JS and Kroger H. New method for point-of-care osteoporosis screening and diagnostics. Osteoporos Int. 2016 Mar;27(3):971-977. doi: 10.1007/s00198-015-3387-4. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

  • Vaananen SP, Grassi L, Flivik G, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. Generation of 3D shape, density, cortical thickness and finite element mesh of proximal femur from a DXA image. Med Image Anal. 2015 Aug;24(1):125-134. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2015 Jun 19.

  • Turunen MJ, Toyras J, Kokkonen HT and Jurvelin JS. Quantitative evaluation of knee subchondral bone mineral density using cone beam computed tomography. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2015 Oct;34(10):2186-90. doi: 10.1109/TMI.2015.2426684. Epub 2015 Apr 28.

  • Ojanen X, Isaksson H, Toyras J, Turunen MJ, Malo MK, Halvari A and Jurvelin JS. Relationships between tissue composition and viscoelastic properties in human trabecular bone. J Biomech. 2015 Jan 21;48(2):269-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.11.034. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

  • Florea C, Malo MK, Rautiainen J, Makela JT, Fick JM, Nieminen MT, Jurvelin JS, Davidescu A and Korhonen RK. Alterations in subchondral bone plate, trabecular bone and articular cartilage properties of rabbit femoral condyles at 4 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament transection. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Mar;23(3):414-22. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2014.11.023. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

  • Grassi L, Vaananen SP, Yavari SA, Jurvelin JS, Weinans H, Ristinmaa M, Zadpoor AA and Isaksson H. Full-field strain measurement during mechanical testing of the human femur at physiologically relevant strain rates. J Biomech Eng. 2014 Nov;136(11). pii: 1901145. doi: 10.1115/1.4028415.

  • Halonen KS, Mononen ME, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J, Salo J and Korhonen RK. Deformation of articular cartilage during static loading of a knee joint--experimental and finite element analysis. J Biomech. 2014 Jul 18;47(10):2467-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.04.013. Epub 2014 Apr 16.

  • Malo MK, Toyras J, Karjalainen JP, Isaksson H, Riekkinen O and Jurvelin JS. Ultrasound backscatter measurements of intact human proximal femurs--relationships of ultrasound parameters with tissue structure and mineral density. Bone. 2014 Jul;64:240-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2014.04.014. Epub 2014 Apr 24.

  • Rieppo L, Saarakkala S, Jurvelin JS and Rieppo J. Optimal variable selection for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis of articular cartilage composition. J Biomed Opt. 2014 Feb;19(2):027003. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.19.2.027003.

  • Turunen MJ, Lages S, Labrador A, Olsson U, Tagil M, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. Evaluation of composition and mineral structure of callus tissue in rat femoral fracture. J Biomed Opt. 2014 Feb;19(2):025003. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.19.2.025003.

  • Rieppo L, Narhi T, Helminen HJ, Jurvelin JS, Saarakkala S and Rieppo J. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of human and bovine articular cartilage proteoglycans using carbohydrate peak or its second derivative. J Biomed Opt. 2013 Sep;18(9):097006. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.18.9.097006.

  • te Moller NC, Brommer H, Liukkonen J, Viren T, Timonen M, Puhakka PH, Jurvelin JS, van Weeren PR and Toyras J. Arthroscopic optical coherence tomography provides detailed information on articular cartilage lesions in horses. Vet J. 2013 Sep;197(3):589-95. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.05.031. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

  • Vaananen SP, Amin Yavari S, Weinans H, Zadpoor AA, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. Repeatability of digital image correlation for measurement of surface strains in composite long bones. J Biomech. 2013 Jul 26;46(11):1928-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.05.021. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

  • Kulmala KA, Karjalainen HM, Kokkonen HT, Tiitu V, Kovanen V, Lammi MJ, Jurvelin JS, Korhonen RK and Toyras J. Diffusion of ionic and non-ionic contrast agents in articular cartilage with increased cross-linking--contribution of steric and electrostatic effects. Med Eng Phys. 2013 Oct;35(10):1415-20. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2013.03.010. Epub 2013 Apr 24.

  • Tamminen IS, Yli-Kyyny T, Isaksson H, Turunen MJ, Tong X, Jurvelin JS and Kroger H. Incidence and bone biopsy findings of atypical femoral fractures. J Bone Miner Metab. 2013 Sep;31(5):585-94. doi: 10.1007/s00774-013-0448-7. Epub 2013 Apr 4.

  • Rieppo L, Saarakkala S, Jurvelin JS and Rieppo J. Prediction of compressive stiffness of articular cartilage using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. J Biomech. 2013 Apr 26;46(7):1269-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.02.022. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

  • Grassi L, Vaananen SP, Amin Yavari S, Weinans H, Jurvelin JS, Zadpoor AA and Isaksson H. Experimental validation of finite element model for proximal composite femur using optical measurements. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2013 May;21:86-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.02.006. Epub 2013 Feb 19.

  • Turunen MJ, Prantner V, Jurvelin JS, Kroger H and Isaksson H. Composition and microarchitecture of human trabecular bone change with age and differ between anatomical locations. Bone. 2013 May;54(1):118-25. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2013.01.045. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

  • Halonen KS, Mononen ME, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J and Korhonen RK. Importance of depth-wise distribution of collagen and proteoglycans in articular cartilage--a 3D finite element study of stresses and strains in human knee joint. J Biomech. 2013 Apr 5;46(6):1184-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.12.025. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

  • Malo MK, Rohrbach D, Isaksson H, Toyras J, Jurvelin JS, Tamminen IS, Kroger H and Raum K. Longitudinal elastic properties and porosity of cortical bone tissue vary with age in human proximal femur. Bone. 2013 Apr;53(2):451-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2013.01.015. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

  • Hirvasniemi J, Kulmala KA, Lammentausta E, Ojala R, Lehenkari P, Kamel A, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J, Nieminen MT and Saarakkala S. In vivo comparison of delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage and delayed quantitative CT arthrography in imaging of articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Mar;21(3):434-42. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.12.009. Epub 2012 Dec 26.

  • Kobrina Y, Rieppo L, Saarakkala S, Pulkkinen HJ, Tiitu V, Valonen P, Kiviranta I, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. Cluster analysis of infrared spectra can differentiate intact and repaired articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Mar;21(3):462-9. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.12.005. Epub 2012 Dec 23.

  • Pulkkinen HJ, Tiitu V, Valonen P, Jurvelin JS, Rieppo L, Toyras J, Silvast TS, Lammi MJ and Kiviranta I. Repair of osteochondral defects with recombinant human type II collagen gel and autologous chondrocytes in rabbit. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Mar;21(3):481-90. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.12.004. Epub 2012 Dec 17.

  • Vaananen SP, Isaksson H, Waarsing JH, Zadpoor AA, Jurvelin JS and Weinans H. Estimation of 3D rotation of femur in 2D hip radiographs. J Biomech. 2012 Aug 31;45(13):2279-83. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.06.007. Epub 2012 Jul 13.

  • Kulmala KA, Pulkkinen HJ, Rieppo L, Tiitu V, Kiviranta I, Brunott A, Brommer H, van Weeren R, Brama PA, Mikkola MT, Korhonen RK, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Contrast-Enhanced Micro-Computed Tomography in Evaluation of Spontaneous Repair of Equine Cartilage. Cartilage. 2012 Jul;3(3):235-44. doi: 10.1177/1947603511424173.

  • Viren T, Timonen M, Tyrvainen H, Tiitu V, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Ultrasonic evaluation of acute impact injury of articular cartilage in vitro. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012 Jul;20(7):719-26. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.03.018. Epub 2012 Mar 30.

  • Rieppo L, Rieppo J, Jurvelin JS and Saarakkala S. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and multivariate regression for prediction of proteoglycan content of articular cartilage. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32344. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032344. Epub 2012 Feb 16.

  • Kobrina Y, Rieppo L, Saarakkala S, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. Clustering of infrared spectra reveals histological zones in intact articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012 May;20(5):460-8. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.01.014. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

  • Rieppo L, Saarakkala S, Narhi T, Helminen HJ, Jurvelin JS and Rieppo J. Application of second derivative spectroscopy for increasing molecular specificity of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging of articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012 May;20(5):451-9. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.01.010. Epub 2012 Jan 25.

  • Turunen MJ, Toyras J, Lammi MJ, Jurvelin JS and Korhonen RK. Hyperosmolaric contrast agents in cartilage tomography may expose cartilage to overload-induced cell death. J Biomech. 2012 Feb 2;45(3):497-503. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.11.049. Epub 2011 Dec 27.

  • Vaananen SP, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. Estimation of 3D shape, internal density and mechanics of proximal femur by combining bone mineral density images with shape and density templates. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 Jul;11(6):791-800. doi: 10.1007/s10237-011-0352-9. Epub 2011 Oct 11.

  • Turunen MJ, Saarakkala S, Helminen HJ, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. Age-related changes in organization and content of the collagen matrix in rabbit cortical bone. J Orthop Res. 2012 Mar;30(3):435-42. doi: 10.1002/jor.21538. Epub 2011 Aug 22.

  • Kokkonen HT, Makela J, Kulmala KA, Rieppo L, Jurvelin JS, Tiitu V, Karjalainen HM, Korhonen RK, Kovanen V and Toyras J. Computed tomography detects changes in contrast agent diffusion after collagen cross-linking typical to natural aging of articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011 Oct;19(10):1190-8. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2011.07.008. Epub 2011 Jul 23.

  • Malo MK, Karjalainen JP, Riekkinen O, Isaksson H, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Effects of non-optimal focusing on dual-frequency ultrasound measurements of bone. IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2011 Jun;58(6):1182-8. doi: 10.1109/TUFFC.2011.1928.

  • Karjalainen JP, Riekkinen O, Toyras J, Hakulinen M, Kroger H, Rikkonen T, Salovaara K and Jurvelin JS. Multi-site bone ultrasound measurements in elderly women with and without previous hip fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2012 Apr;23(4):1287-95. doi: 10.1007/s00198-011-1682-2. Epub 2011 Jun 9.

  • Turunen MJ, Saarakkala S, Rieppo L, Helminen HJ, Jurvelin JS and Isaksson H. Comparison between infrared and Raman spectroscopic analysis of maturing rabbit cortical bone. Appl Spectrosc. 2011 Jun;65(6):595-603. doi: 10.1366/10-06193.

  • Tamminen IS, Mayranpaa MK, Turunen MJ, Isaksson H, Makitie O, Jurvelin JS and Kroger H. Altered bone composition in children with vertebral fracture. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Sep;26(9):2226-34. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.409.

  • Kobrina Y, Isaksson H, Sinisaari M, Rieppo L, Brama PA, van Weeren R, Helminen HJ, Jurvelin JS and Saarakkala S. Infrared spectroscopy reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences in equine subchondral bone during maturation. J Biomed Opt. 2010 Nov-Dec;15(6):067003. doi: 10.1117/1.3512177.

  • Timonen MA, Toyras J, Aula AS, Karjalainen JP, Riekkinen O and Jurvelin JS. Technical and practical improvements in arthroscopic indentation technique for diagnostics of articular cartilage softening. J Med Eng Technol. 2011 Jan;35(1):40-6. doi: 10.3109/03091902.2010.525684. Epub 2010 Nov 25.

  • Kobrina Y, Turunen MJ, Saarakkala S, Jurvelin JS, Hauta-Kasari M and Isaksson H. Cluster analysis of infrared spectra of rabbit cortical bone samples during maturation and growth. Analyst. 2010 Dec;135(12):3147-55. doi: 10.1039/c0an00500b. Epub 2010 Oct 29.

  • Vaananen SP, Isaksson H, Julkunen P, Sirola J, Kroger H and Jurvelin JS. Assessment of the 3-D shape and mechanics of the proximal femur using a shape template and a bone mineral density image. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2011 Jul;10(4):529-38. doi: 10.1007/s10237-010-0253-3. Epub 2010 Sep 1.

  • Julkunen P, Halmesmaki EP, Iivarinen J, Rieppo L, Narhi T, Marjanen J, Rieppo J, Arokoski J, Brama PA, Jurvelin JS and Helminen HJ. Effects of growth and exercise on composition, structural maturation and appearance of osteoarthritis in articular cartilage of hamsters. J Anat. 2010 Sep;217(3):262-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01270.x. Epub 2010 Jul 14.

  • Kulmala KA, Korhonen RK, Julkunen P, Jurvelin JS, Quinn TM, Kroger H and Toyras J. Diffusion coefficients of articular cartilage for different CT and MRI contrast agents. Med Eng Phys. 2010 Oct;32(8):878-82. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2010.06.002. Epub 2010 Jul 1.

  • Isaksson H, Turunen MJ, Rieppo L, Saarakkala S, Tamminen IS, Rieppo J, Kroger H and Jurvelin JS. Infrared spectroscopy indicates altered bone turnover and remodeling activity in renal osteodystrophy. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Jun;25(6):1360-6. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.10.

  • Malo MK, Karjalainen JP, Isaksson H, Riekkinen O, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Numerical analysis of uncertainties in dual frequency bone ultrasound technique. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2010 Feb;36(2):288-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2009.10.008.

  • Rieppo L, Saarakkala S, Narhi T, Holopainen J, Lammi M, Helminen HJ, Jurvelin JS and Rieppo J. Quantitative analysis of spatial proteoglycan content in articular cartilage with Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy: Critical evaluation of analysis methods and specificity of the parameters. Microsc Res Tech. 2010 May;73(5):503-12. doi: 10.1002/jemt.20789.

  • Karjalainen JP, Toyras J, Riekkinen O, Hakulinen M and Jurvelin JS. Ultrasound backscatter imaging provides frequency-dependent information on structure, composition and mechanical properties of human trabecular bone. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2009 Aug;35(8):1376-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2009.03.011. Epub 2009 Jun 13.

  • Riekkinen O, Hakulinen MA, Timonen M, Toyras J and Jurvelin JS. Influence of overlying soft tissues on trabecular bone acoustic measurement at various ultrasound frequencies. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2006 Jul;32(7):1073-83. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2006.03.012.

  • Hakulinen MA, Day JS, Toyras J, Timonen M, Kroger H, Weinans H, Kiviranta I and Jurvelin JS. Prediction of density and mechanical properties of human trabecular bone in vitro by using ultrasound transmission and backscattering measurements at 0.2-6.7 MHz frequency range. Phys Med Biol. 2005 Apr 21;50(8):1629-42. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/50/8/001. Epub 2005 Mar 30.

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