Research Group

Cell and Tissue Biomechanics (CTB) - Rami's group

Group leader

Post Doc researchers

Ph.D. students

Overview

Chondrocytes respond differently to varying loading conditions in articular cartilage and their deformations are thought to be related to tissue biosynthesis. Cell deformation behavior in human joints is affected by the applied loading and properties of the cartilage tissue surrounding cells. Altered loading and material properties of the tissue affects cell responses, cartilage synthesis and degradation, and consequently the progression of osteoarthritis. Currently there are no tool to quantitatively evaluate how osteoarthritis progresses in a patient, thus, the prevention of the disease is extremely challenging.

Objectives of our research are to characterize biological materials (primarily articular cartilage) in tissue and cellular level and their behavior and responses under loading, thus, to provide insight into the mechanisms behind osteoarthritis. We also developed state-of-the art models of cartilage and chondrocytes embedded in cartilage matrix for the estimation of the effect of changed loading and cartilage structure on cell deformations (e.g. in disease). In order to quantify tissue and cell responses in human joints, we develop multi-scale computational models where joint level forces are used as an input to analyze tissue and cell responses. Ultimately these studies aim at patient-specific estimation of joint mechanics, in which imaging and sophisticated computational modeling are combined to estimate stresses, strains, failure sites and progression of osteoarthritis in human joints.

The main methods are macro-, micro- and nano- level mechanical testing, computational modeling and different imaging modalities in different length scales. This is very multidisciplinary research area (e.g. biomechanics, bioengineering, cell biology, public health science). Several national research groups are involved in this research and an active international collaboration and mobility exist within this research area.

Methods

Follow the links below for the methods.

Projects and other funding sources

Projects
Other funding sources

Recent publications (see PubMed for a full list)

  • Liukkonen MK, Mononen ME, Tanska P, Saarakkala S, Nieminen MT and Korhonen RK. Application of a semi-automatic cartilage segmentation method for biomechanical modeling of the knee joint. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2017 Sep 12:1-11. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2017.1375477.

  • Liukkonen MK, Mononen ME, Klets O, Arokoski JP, Saarakkala S and Korhonen RK. Simulation of Subject-Specific Progression of Knee Osteoarthritis and Comparison to Experimental Follow-up Data: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 23;7(1):9177. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-09013-7.

  • Rasanen LP, Tanska P, Zbyn S, van Donkelaar CC, Trattnig S, Nieminen MT and Korhonen RK. The effect of fixed charge density and cartilage swelling on mechanics of knee joint cartilage during simulated gait. J Biomech. 2017 Aug 16;61:34-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.06.041. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

  • Viren T, Honkanen JT, Danso EK, Rieppo L, Korhonen RK and Toyras J. Ultrasound Assessment of Human Meniscus. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2017 Sep;43(9):1753-1763. doi: 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.01.020. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

  • Danso EK, Oinas JM, Saarakkala S, Mikkonen S, Toyras J and Korhonen RK. Structure-function relationships of human meniscus. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2017 Mar;67:51-60. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.12.002. Epub 2016 Dec 3.

  • Venalainen MS, Mononen ME, Salo J, Rasanen LP, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J, Viren T and Korhonen RK. Quantitative Evaluation of the Mechanical Risks Caused by Focal Cartilage Defects in the Knee. Sci Rep. 2016 Nov 29;6:37538. doi: 10.1038/srep37538.

  • Fick JM, P Ronkainen A, Madden R, Sawatsky A, Tiitu V, Herzog W and Korhonen RK. Early in situ changes in chondrocyte biomechanical responses due to a partial meniscectomy in the lateral compartment of the mature rabbit knee joint. J Biomech. 2016 Dec 8;49(16):4057-4064. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.10.039. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

  • Klets O, Mononen ME, Tanska P, Nieminen MT, Korhonen RK and Saarakkala S. Comparison of different material models of articular cartilage in 3D computational modeling of the knee: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). J Biomech. 2016 Dec 8;49(16):3891-3900. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.10.025. Epub 2016 Oct 25.

  • Rasanen LP, Tanska P, Mononen ME, Lammentausta E, Zbyn S, Venalainen MS, Szomolanyi P, van Donkelaar CC, Jurvelin JS, Trattnig S, Nieminen MT and Korhonen RK. Spatial variation of fixed charge density in knee joint cartilage from sodium MRI - Implication on knee joint mechanics under static loading. J Biomech. 2016 Oct 3;49(14):3387-3396. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.09.011. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

  • Florea C, Tanska P, Mononen ME, Qu C, Lammi MJ, Laasanen MS and Korhonen RK. A combined experimental atomic force microscopy-based nanoindentation and computational modeling approach to unravel the key contributors to the time-dependent mechanical behavior of single cells. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2017 Feb;16(1):297-311. doi: 10.1007/s10237-016-0817-y. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

  • Ronkainen AP, Fick JM, Herzog W and Korhonen RK. Site-specific cell-tissue interactions in rabbit knee joint articular cartilage. J Biomech. 2016 Sep 6;49(13):2882-2890. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.06.033. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

  • Halonen KS, Mononen ME, Toyras J, Kroger H, Joukainen A and Korhonen RK. Optimal graft stiffness and pre-strain restore normal joint motion and cartilage responses in ACL reconstructed knee. J Biomech. 2016 Sep 6;49(13):2566-2576. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.05.002. Epub 2016 May 13.

  • Puhakka PH, Te Moller NC, Tanska P, Saarakkala S, Tiitu V, Korhonen RK, Brommer H, Viren T, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Optical coherence tomography enables accurate measurement of equine cartilage thickness for determination of speed of sound. Acta Orthop. 2016 Aug;87(4):418-24. doi: 10.1080/17453674.2016.1180578. Epub 2016 May 10.

  • Halonen KS, Mononen ME, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J, Klodowski A, Kulmala JP and Korhonen RK. Importance of Patella, Quadriceps Forces, and Depthwise Cartilage Structure on Knee Joint Motion and Cartilage Response During Gait. J Biomech Eng. 2016 Jul 1;138(7). doi: 10.1115/1.4033516.

  • Makela JT and Korhonen RK. Highly nonlinear stress-relaxation response of articular cartilage in indentation: Importance of collagen nonlinearity. J Biomech. 2016 Jun 14;49(9):1734-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.04.002. Epub 2016 Apr 16.

  • Venalainen MS, Mononen ME, Vaananen SP, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J, Viren T and Korhonen RK. Effect of bone inhomogeneity on tibiofemoral contact mechanics during physiological loading. J Biomech. 2016 May 3;49(7):1111-1120. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.02.033. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

  • Mononen ME, Tanska P, Isaksson H and Korhonen RK. A Novel Method to Simulate the Progression of Collagen Degeneration of Cartilage in the Knee: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 24;6:21415. doi: 10.1038/srep21415.

  • Rasanen LP, Mononen ME, Lammentausta E, Nieminen MT, Jurvelin JS and Korhonen RK. Three dimensional patient-specific collagen architecture modulates cartilage responses in the knee joint during gait. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2016;19(11):1225-40. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2015.1124269. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

  • Fick JM, Ronkainen A, Herzog W and Korhonen RK. Site-dependent biomechanical responses of chondrocytes in the rabbit knee joint. J Biomech. 2015 Nov 26;48(15):4010-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.09.049. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

  • Makela JT, Han SK, Herzog W and Korhonen RK. Very early osteoarthritis changes sensitively fluid flow properties of articular cartilage. J Biomech. 2015 Sep 18;48(12):3369-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.06.010. Epub 2015 Jun 27.

  • Puhakka PH, Te Moller NCR, Afara IO, Makela JTA, Tiitu V, Korhonen RK, Brommer H, Viren T, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Estimation of articular cartilage properties using multivariate analysis of optical coherence tomography signal. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Dec;23(12):2206-2213. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2015.05.034. Epub 2015 Jun 6.

  • Korhonen RK, Tanska P, Kaartinen SM, Fick JM and Mononen ME. New Concept to Restore Normal Cell Responses in Osteoarthritic Knee Joint Cartilage. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2015 Jul;43(3):143-52. doi: 10.1249/JES.0000000000000051.

  • Honkanen JT, Danso EK, Suomalainen JS, Tiitu V, Korhonen RK, Jurvelin JS and Toyras J. Contrast enhanced imaging of human meniscus using cone beam CT. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Aug;23(8):1367-76. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2015.03.037. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

  • Arokoski ME, Tiitu V, Jurvelin JS, Korhonen RK and Fick JM. Topographical investigation of changes in depth-wise proteoglycan distribution in rabbit femoral articular cartilage at 4 weeks after transection of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Orthop Res. 2015 Sep;33(9):1278-86. doi: 10.1002/jor.22906. Epub 2015 May 21.

  • Tanska P, Mononen ME and Korhonen RK. A multi-scale finite element model for investigation of chondrocyte mechanics in normal and medial meniscectomy human knee joint during walking. J Biomech. 2015 Jun 1;48(8):1397-406. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.02.043. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

  • Danso EK, Makela JT, Tanska P, Mononen ME, Honkanen JT, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J, Julkunen P and Korhonen RK. Characterization of site-specific biomechanical properties of human meniscus-Importance of collagen and fluid on mechanical nonlinearities. J Biomech. 2015 Jun 1;48(8):1499-507. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.01.048. Epub 2015 Feb 7.

  • Florea C, Malo MK, Rautiainen J, Makela JT, Fick JM, Nieminen MT, Jurvelin JS, Davidescu A and Korhonen RK. Alterations in subchondral bone plate, trabecular bone and articular cartilage properties of rabbit femoral condyles at 4 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament transection. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Mar;23(3):414-22. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2014.11.023. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

  • Venalainen MS, Mononen ME, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J, Viren T and Korhonen RK. Importance of material properties and porosity of bone on mechanical response of articular cartilage in human knee joint--a two-dimensional finite element study. J Biomech Eng. 2014 Dec;136(12):121005. doi: 10.1115/1.4028801.

  • Fick JM, Huttu MR, Lammi MJ and Korhonen RK. In vitro glycation of articular cartilage alters the biomechanical response of chondrocytes in a depth-dependent manner. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2014 Oct;22(10):1410-8. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2014.07.020.

  • Halonen KS, Mononen ME, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J, Salo J and Korhonen RK. Deformation of articular cartilage during static loading of a knee joint--experimental and finite element analysis. J Biomech. 2014 Jul 18;47(10):2467-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.04.013. Epub 2014 Apr 16.

  • Makela JT, Rezaeian ZS, Mikkonen S, Madden R, Han SK, Jurvelin JS, Herzog W and Korhonen RK. Site-dependent changes in structure and function of lapine articular cartilage 4 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament transection. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2014 Jun;22(6):869-78. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2014.04.010. Epub 2014 Apr 25.

  • Huttu MR, Puhakka J, Makela JT, Takakubo Y, Tiitu V, Saarakkala S, Konttinen YT, Kiviranta I and Korhonen RK. Cell-tissue interactions in osteoarthritic human hip joint articular cartilage. Connect Tissue Res. 2014 Aug;55(4):282-91. doi: 10.3109/03008207.2014.912645. Epub 2014 Apr 30.

  • Danso EK, Honkanen JT, Saarakkala S and Korhonen RK. Comparison of nonlinear mechanical properties of bovine articular cartilage and meniscus. J Biomech. 2014 Jan 3;47(1):200-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.09.015. Epub 2013 Oct 19.

  • Tanska P, Turunen SM, Han SK, Julkunen P, Herzog W and Korhonen RK. Superficial collagen fibril modulus and pericellular fixed charge density modulate chondrocyte volumetric behaviour in early osteoarthritis. Comput Math Methods Med. 2013;2013:164146. doi: 10.1155/2013/164146. Epub 2013 Mar 24.

  • Mononen ME, Jurvelin JS and Korhonen RK. Effects of radial tears and partial meniscectomy of lateral meniscus on the knee joint mechanics during the stance phase of the gait cycle--A 3D finite element study. J Orthop Res. 2013 Aug;31(8):1208-17. doi: 10.1002/jor.22358. Epub 2013 Apr 9.

  • Mononen ME, Jurvelin JS and Korhonen RK. Implementation of a gait cycle loading into healthy and meniscectomised knee joint models with fibril-reinforced articular cartilage. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2015;18(2):141-52. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2013.783575. Epub 2013 Apr 9.

  • Halonen KS, Mononen ME, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J and Korhonen RK. Importance of depth-wise distribution of collagen and proteoglycans in articular cartilage--a 3D finite element study of stresses and strains in human knee joint. J Biomech. 2013 Apr 5;46(6):1184-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.12.025. Epub 2013 Feb 4.

  • Turunen SM, Han SK, Herzog W and Korhonen RK. Cell deformation behavior in mechanically loaded rabbit articular cartilage 4 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament transection. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013 Mar;21(3):505-13. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.12.001. Epub 2012 Dec 26.

  • Makela JT, Huttu MR and Korhonen RK. Structure-function relationships in osteoarthritic human hip joint articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012 Nov;20(11):1268-77. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2012.07.016. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

  • Rasanen LP, Mononen ME, Nieminen MT, Lammentausta E, Jurvelin JS and Korhonen RK. Implementation of subject-specific collagen architecture of cartilage into a 2D computational model of a knee joint--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). J Orthop Res. 2013 Jan;31(1):10-22. doi: 10.1002/jor.22175. Epub 2012 Jul 5.

  • Turunen SM, Lammi MJ, Saarakkala S, Han SK, Herzog W, Tanska P and Korhonen RK. The effect of collagen degradation on chondrocyte volume and morphology in bovine articular cartilage following a hypotonic challenge. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2013 Jun;12(3):417-29. doi: 10.1007/s10237-012-0409-4. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

  • Mononen ME, Mikkola MT, Julkunen P, Ojala R, Nieminen MT, Jurvelin JS and Korhonen RK. Effect of superficial collagen patterns and fibrillation of femoral articular cartilage on knee joint mechanics-a 3D finite element analysis. J Biomech. 2012 Feb 2;45(3):579-87. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.11.003. Epub 2011 Nov 30.

  • Turunen SM, Lammi MJ, Saarakkala S, Koistinen A and Korhonen RK. Hypotonic challenge modulates cell volumes differently in the superficial zone of intact articular cartilage and cartilage explant. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2012 May;11(5):665-75. doi: 10.1007/s10237-011-0341-z. Epub 2011 Aug 30.

  • Mononen ME, Julkunen P, Toyras J, Jurvelin JS, Kiviranta I and Korhonen RK. Alterations in structure and properties of collagen network of osteoarthritic and repaired cartilage modify knee joint stresses. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2011 Jun;10(3):357-69. doi: 10.1007/s10237-010-0239-1. Epub 2010 Jul 14.

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