Research

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


Magnetic resonance imaging is the one of the most potential tools for noninvasive assessment of articular cartilage. MRI has the exclusive property to probe the magnetic characteristics of tissue water, that interacts with macromolecular constituents, collagen and proteoglycans, to provide indirect access to information on the extracellular matrix. The aim of our MRI research is to validate and develop quantitative MRI techniques for structural characterization of articular cartilage. Since the structure and composition of cartilage are closely connected with the function of the tissue, we further aim at elucidating biomechanical properties of the tissue using quantitative MRI techniques. With the recent advances in the pulse sequence technology, we also aim to evaluate musculoskeletal tissues previously almost undetectable with MRI, such as bone, calcified cartilage and meniscus. Currently, primary MRI techniques in use include mapping of T2 relaxation time[1-3] and relaxation time parameters in rotating frame of reference (RFR-techniques)[4-7], magnetization transfer (MT) methods[8,9] and SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transform (SWIFT)[10].

References:

  1. Xia Y. Relaxation anisotropy in cartilage by NMR microscopy (muMRI) at 14-microm resolution. Magn Reson Med. 1998 Jun;39(6):941-9.

  2. Nieminen MT, Toyras J, Rieppo J, Hakumaki JM, Silvennoinen J, Helminen HJ, Jurvelin JS. Quantitative MR microscopy of enzymatically degraded articular cartilage. Magn Reson Med. 2000 May;43(5):676-81.

  3. Nissi MJ, Toyras J, Laasanen MS, Rieppo J, Saarakkala S, Lappalainen R, Jurvelin JS, Nieminen MT. Proteoglycan and collagen sensitive MRI evaluation of normal and degenerated articular cartilage. J Orthop Res. 2004 May;22(3):557-64.

  4. Duvvuri U, Reddy R, Patel SD, Kaufman JH, Kneeland JB, Leigh JS. T1rho-relaxation in articular cartilage: effects of enzymatic degradation. Magn Reson Med. 1997 Dec;38(6):863-7.

  5. Regatte RR, Akella SV, Borthakur A, Reddy R. Proton spin-lock ratio imaging for quantitation of glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2003 Jan;17(1):114-21.

  6. Michaeli S, Sorce DJ, Idiyatullin D, Ugurbil K, Garwood M. Transverse relaxation in the rotating frame induced by chemical exchange. J Magn Reson. 2004 Aug;169(2):293-9.

  7. Liimatainen T, Sorce DJ, O'Connell R, Garwood M, Michaeli S. MRI contrast from relaxation along a fictitious field (RAFF). Magn Reson Med. 2010 Oct;64(4):983-94.

  8. Narvainen J, Hubbard PL, Kauppinen RA, Morris GA. Z-spectroscopy with Alternating-Phase Irradiation. J Magn Reson. 2010 Dec;207(2):242-50. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

  9. Mangia S, De Martino F, Liimatainen T, Garwood M, Michaeli S. Magnetization transfer using inversion recovery during off-resonance irradiation. Magn Reson Imaging. 2011 Dec;29(10):1346-50. Epub 2011 May 20.

  10. Idiyatullin D, Corum C, Park JY, Garwood M. Fast and quiet MRI using a swept radiofrequency. J Magn Reson. 2006 Aug;181(2):342-9. Epub 2006 Jun 19.

PhD theses of our researchers:

Jari Rautiainen:
Novel magnetic resonance imaging techniques for articular cartilage and subchondral bone - Studies on MRI relaxometry and short echo time imaging

Jatta Berberat née Kurkijärvi:
Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Native and Repaired Articular Cartilage

Mikko Nissi:
Magnetic Resonance Parameters in Quantitative Evaluation of Articular Cartilage

Eveliina Lammentausta:
Structural and Mechanical Characterization of Articular Cartilage and Trabecular Bone with Quantitative NMR

Miika Nieminen:
Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Articular Cartilage

Publications of our researchers:

  1. Rautiainen J, Nieminen MT, Salo EN, Kokkonen HT, Mangia S, Michaeli S, Grohn O, Jurvelin JS, Toyras J and Nissi MJ. Effect of collagen cross-linking on quantitative MRI parameters of articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2016 Sep;24(9):1656-64. doi:

  2. Nissi MJ, Salo EN, Tiitu V, Liimatainen T, Michaeli S, Mangia S, Ellermann J and Nieminen MT. Multi-parametric MRI characterization of enzymatically degraded articular cartilage. J Orthop Res. 2016 Jul;34(7):1111-20. doi: 10.1002/jor.23127. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

  3. Nissi MJ, Toth F, Wang L, Carlson CS and Ellermann JM. Improved Visualization of Cartilage Canals Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 13;10(7):e0132167. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132167.

  4. Nissi MJ, Mortazavi S, Hughes J, Morgan P and Ellermann J. T2* relaxation time of acetabular and femoral cartilage with and without intraarticular gadopentetate dimeglumine in patients with femoroacetabular impingement. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2015 Jun;204(6):W695-700. doi: 10.2214/AJR.14.13428.

  5. Rautiainen J, Nissi MJ, Liimatainen T, Herzog W, Korhonen RK and Nieminen MT. Adiabatic rotating frame relaxation of MRI reveals early cartilage degeneration in a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2014 Oct;22(10):1444-52. doi:

  6. Rautiainen J, Nissi MJ, Salo EN, Tiitu V, Finnila MAJ, Aho OM, Saarakkala S, Lehenkari P, Ellermann J and Nieminen MT. Multiparametric MRI assessment of human articular cartilage degeneration: Correlation with quantitative histology and mechanical properties. Magn Reson Med. 2015 Jul;74(1):249-259. doi: 10.1002/mrm.25401. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

  7. Nissi MJ, Toth F, Zhang J, Schmitter S, Benson M, Carlson CS and Ellermann JM. Susceptibility weighted imaging of cartilage canals in porcine epiphyseal growth cartilage ex vivo and in vivo. Magn Reson Med. 2014 Jun;71(6):2197-205. doi: 10.1002/mrm.24863. Epub 2013 Jul

  8. Rautiainen J, Lehto LJ, Tiitu V, Kiekara O, Pulkkinen H, Brunott A, van Weeren R, Brommer H, Brama PA, Ellermann J, Kiviranta I, Nieminen MT and Nissi MJ. Osteochondral repair: evaluation with sweep imaging with fourier transform in an equine model. Radiology. 2013 Oct;269(1):113-21. doi: 10.1148/radiol.13121433. Epub 2013 May

  9. Nieminen MT, Nissi MJ, Mattila L and Kiviranta I. Evaluation of chondral repair using quantitative MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012 Dec;36(6):1287-99. doi: 10.1002/jmri.23644.

  10. Salo EN, Nissi MJ, Kulmala KA, Tiitu V, Toyras J and Nieminen MT. Diffusion of Gd-DTPA(2)(-) into articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2012 Feb;20(2):117-26. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2011.11.016.

  11. Berberat JE, Nissi MJ, Jurvelin JS and Nieminen MT. Assessment of interstitial water content of articular cartilage with T1 relaxation. Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 Jun;27(5):727-32. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2008.09.005. Epub

  12. Lammentausta E, Silvast TS, Narvainen J, Jurvelin JS, Nieminen MT and Grohn OH. T2, Carr-Purcell T2 and T1rho of fat and water as surrogate markers of trabecular bone structure. Phys Med Biol. 2008 Feb 7;53(3):543-55. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/53/3/003. Epub

  13. Kurkijarvi JE, Nissi MJ, Rieppo J, Toyras J, Kiviranta I, Nieminen MT and Jurvelin JS. The zonal architecture of human articular cartilage described by T2 relaxation time in the presence of Gd-DTPA2-. Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Jun;26(5):602-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2007.10.013. Epub

  14. Nissi MJ, Rieppo J, Toyras J, Laasanen MS, Kiviranta I, Nieminen MT and Jurvelin JS. Estimation of mechanical properties of articular cartilage with MRI - dGEMRIC, T2 and T1 imaging in different species with variable stages of maturation. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Oct;15(10):1141-8. doi:

  15. Lammentausta E, Kiviranta P, Toyras J, Hyttinen MM, Kiviranta I, Nieminen MT and Jurvelin JS. Quantitative MRI of parallel changes of articular cartilage and underlying trabecular bone in degeneration. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Oct;15(10):1149-57. doi:

  16. Lammentausta E, Hakulinen MA, Jurvelin JS and Nieminen MT. Prediction of mechanical properties of trabecular bone using quantitative MRI. Phys Med Biol. 2006 Dec 7;51(23):6187-98. doi: 10.1088/0031-9155/51/23/017. Epub

  17. Kurkijarvi JE, Mattila L, Ojala RO, Vasara AI, Jurvelin JS, Kiviranta I and Nieminen MT. Evaluation of cartilage repair in the distal femur after autologous chondrocyte transplantation using T2 relaxation time and dGEMRIC. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007 Apr;15(4):372-8. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2006.10.001.

  18. Nissi MJ, Rieppo J, Toyras J, Laasanen MS, Kiviranta I, Jurvelin JS and Nieminen MT. T(2) relaxation time mapping reveals age- and species-related diversity of collagen network architecture in articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Dec;14(12):1265-71. doi:

  19. Lammentausta E, Kiviranta P, Nissi MJ, Laasanen MS, Kiviranta I, Nieminen MT and Jurvelin JS. T2 relaxation time and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) of human patellar cartilage at 1.5 T and 9.4 T: Relationships with tissue mechanical properties. J Orthop Res. 2006 Mar;24(3):366-74. doi: 10.1002/jor.20041.

  20. Kurkijarvi JE, Nissi MJ, Kiviranta I, Jurvelin JS and Nieminen MT. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 characteristics of human knee articular cartilage: topographical variation and relationships to mechanical properties. Magn Reson Med. 2004 Jul;52(1):41-6. doi: 10.1002/mrm.20104.

  21. Nieminen MT, Menezes NM, Williams A and Burstein D. T2 of articular cartilage in the presence of Gd-DTPA2-. Magn Reson Med. 2004 Jun;51(6):1147-52. doi: 10.1002/mrm.20083.

  22. Nissi MJ, Toyras J, Laasanen MS, Rieppo J, Saarakkala S, Lappalainen R, Jurvelin JS and Nieminen MT. Proteoglycan and collagen sensitive MRI evaluation of normal and degenerated articular cartilage. J Orthop Res. 2004 May;22(3):557-64. doi: 10.1016/j.orthres.2003.09.008.

  23. Nieminen MT, Toyras J, Laasanen MS, Silvennoinen J, Helminen HJ and Jurvelin JS. Prediction of biomechanical properties of articular cartilage with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. J Biomech. 2004 Mar;37(3):321-8.

  24. Nieminen MT, Rieppo J, Silvennoinen J, Toyras J, Hakumaki JM, Hyttinen MM, Helminen HJ and Jurvelin JS. Spatial assessment of articular cartilage proteoglycans with Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1 imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2002 Oct;48(4):640-8. doi: 10.1002/mrm.10273.

  25. Nieminen MT, Rieppo J, Toyras J, Hakumaki JM, Silvennoinen J, Hyttinen MM, Helminen HJ and Jurvelin JS. T2 relaxation reveals spatial collagen architecture in articular cartilage: a comparative quantitative MRI and polarized light microscopic study. Magn Reson Med. 2001 Sep;46(3):487-93.

  26. Nieminen MT, Toyras J, Rieppo J, Hakumaki JM, Silvennoinen J, Helminen HJ and Jurvelin JS. Quantitative MR microscopy of enzymatically degraded articular cartilage. Magn Reson Med. 2000 May;43(5):676-81.

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